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Refers to feature films and media that have been computer-animated to appear three dimensional on a movie screen. While traditional 2D animated films are now done primarily with the help of computers, the technique to render realistic 3D computer graphics (CG), or 3D Computer-generated imagery (CGI), is unique to using computers to create movies.

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Ceramics

Ceramics in archaeology

Ceramic artifacts are an important role in archaeology for understanding the culture, technology and behavior of peoples of the past. They are among the most common artifacts to be found at an archaeological site, generally in the form of small fragments of broken pottery called sherds. Processing of collected shreds can be consistent with two main types of analysis: technical and traditional.

Traditional analysis involves sorting ceramic artifacts, shreds and larger fragments into specific types based on style, composition, manufacturing, and morphology. By creating these typologies it is possible to distinguish between different cultural styles, the purpose of the ceramic and technological state of the people among other conclusions. In addition, by looking at stylistic changes of ceramics over time is it possible to separate (seriate) the ceramics into distinct diagnostic groups (assemblages). A comparison of ceramic artifacts with known dated assemblages allows for a chronological assignment of these pieces.

The technical approach to ceramic analysis involves a finer examination of the composition of ceramic artifacts and sherds to determine the source of the material and through this the possible manufacturing site. Two main areas to examine in this process are the clay composition and the temper used in the ceramics manufacture process.

Temper is a material added to the clay which aids in the heating and expansion process of firing to produce better quality ceramics. Types of temper include shell pieces, granite fragments, and ground sherd pieces called grog. Temper is usually identified a microscopy of the temper material.

Clay identification is determined by a process of refiring the clay and assigning a color to it using Munsell Soil Color notation. By identifying both the clay and temper composition and geographically locating a region where both are known to occur a material source assignment can be made. From the source assignment of the artifact further investigations can be made into the site of manufacture.

 

 

  • Work is being done in developing ceramic parts for gas turbine engines. Currently, even blades made of advanced metal alloys used in the engines' hot section require cooling and careful limiting of operating temperatures. Turbine engines made with ceramics could operate more efficiently, giving aircraft greater range and payload for a set amount of fuel.
  • Recent advances have been made in ceramics which include bioceramics, such as dental implants and synthetic bones. Hydroxyapatite, the natural mineral component of bone, has been made synthetically from a number of biological and chemical sources and can be formed into ceramic materials. Orthopedic implants coated with these materials bond readily to bone and other tissues in the body without rejection or inflammatory reactions so are of great interest for gene delivery and tissue engineering scaffolds. Most hydroxyapatite ceramics are very porous and lack mechanical strength, and are used to coat metal orthopedic devices to aid in forming a bond to bone or as bone fillers. They are also used as fillers for orthopedic plastic screws to aid in reducing the inflammation and increase absorption of these plastic materials. Work is being done to make strong, fully dense nano crystalline hydroxyapatite ceramic materials for orthopedic weight bearing devices, replacing foreign metal and plastic orthopedic materials with a synthetic, but naturally occurring, bone mineral. Ultimately, these ceramic materials may be used as bone replacements or with the incorporation of protein collagens, synthetic bones.
  • High-tech ceramic is used in watchmaking for producing watch cases. The material is valued by watchmakers for its light weight, scratch resistance, durability and smooth touch. IWC is one of the brands that initiated the use of ceramic in watchmaking. The case of the IWC 2007 Top Gun edition of the Pilot's Watch double chronograph is crafted in black ceramic.
Benjarong, the royal porcelain of Thailand, wears the grace of Thai culture through each carefully placed brushstroke. In the early Rattanakosin period, Benjarong porcelain items were highly prized and used only in the Royal household and upper class Thai families.

Benjarong, meaning 's five colours, was originally made in China, hand crafted from clay, fired in charcoal ovens and finished in fine gold plating. Each piece consists of hand-applied, real gold masks laid over the white ceramic, enabling the artist to produce a tactile, detailed Thai pattern around the gold, using at least five colours.

The rare beauty of Benjarong allows it to be displayed as a single piece or a set, to compliment interior design. Benjarong is a product of Thailand that is cherished by recipients and admired by all

Lampang ceramic : Utilizing the special "white" clay of Northern Thailand, artisians throughout the region produce a mulitude of fine ceramic pieces that border on works or art; but also possess true functionality, durablity and form. At Lampang Province..

 

DanKwian : The land of ceramics, is located in Tambol DanKwian, Chokchai District and is 15 kilometres south-east of Korat City. Route No.224 Nakhon Ratchasima - Chokchai runs thougth the village where both sides of the orad are fulled of beautiful and astonishing ceramic shops.The moon River runs on the east side of the village.

 

 

Types of ceramic products

For convenience, ceramic products are usually divided into four sectors; these are shown below with some examples:

  • Structural, including bricks, pipes, floor and roof tiles
  • Refractories, such as kiln linings, gas fire radiants, steel and glass making crucibles
  • Whitewares, including tableware, cookware, wall tiles, pottery products and sanitary ware
  • Technical, is also known as engineering, advanced, special, and in Japan, fine ceramics. Such items include tiles used in the Space Shuttle program, gas burner nozzles, ballistic protection, nuclear fuel uranium oxide pellets, biomedical implants, coatings of jet engine turbine blades, ceramic disk brake, missile nose cones, bearing (mechanical). Frequently, the raw materials do ot include clays.
  • Knife blades: the blade of a ceramic knife will stay sharp for much longer than that of a steel knife, although it is more brittle and can be snapped by dropping it on a hard surface.
  • Vehicle ceramic brake discs are resistant to abrasion at high temperatures.
  • Advanced composite ceramic and metal matrices have been designed for most modern armoured fighting vehicles because they offer superior penetrating resistance against shaped charges such as high explosive antitank (HEAT) rounds and kinetic energy penetrators.
  • Ceramics such as alumina and boron carbide have been used in ballistic armored vests to repel large-caliber rifle fire. Such plates are known commonly as small arms protective inserts (SAPIs). Similar material is used to protect cockpits of some military airplanes, because of the low weight of the material.
  • Ceramic balls can be used to replace steel in ball bearings. Their higher hardness means they are much less susceptible to wear and can offer more than triple lifetimes. They also deform less under load, meaning they have less contact with the bearing retainer walls and can roll faster. In very high speed applications, heat from friction during rolling can cause problems for metal bearings, which are reduced by the use of ceramics. Ceramics are also more chemically resistant and can be used in wet environments where steel bearings would rust. In some cases, their electricity-insulating properties may also be valuable in bearings. The two major drawbacks to using ceramics are a significantly higher cost and susceptibility to damage under shock loads.

 

In the early 1980s, Toyota researched production of an adiabatic engine using ceramic components in the hot gas area. The ceramics would have allowed temperatures of over 3000°F (1650°C). The expected advantages would have lighter materials, no or reduced cooling system, and hence a major weight reduction. The expected increase of fuel efficiency of the engine (caused by the higher temperature, as shown by Carnot's theorem) could not be verified experimentally; it was found that the heat transfer on the hot ceramic cylinder walls is higher than the transfer to a cooler metal wall. Obviously the cooler gas film on the metal surface works as a thermal insulator. Thus, despite all of these desirable properties, such engines have not succeeded in production because of costs for the ceramic components and the limited advantages. (Small imperfections in the ceramic material with its low fracture toughness lead to cracks, which can lead to potentially dangerous equipment failure.) Such engines are possible in laboratory settings, but mass production is not feasible with current technology.

 

Jewelrys

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the mid 1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s. Religion has also played a role: Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo,and many religions have edicts against excessive display. In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, "the great whore" or false religious system, is depicted as being "decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand."

Jewellery market

According to a recent KPMG study the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe's and Japan's marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

 

Fashion Design

 

Thus, traditional Thai dress was redesigned to please and accommodate the modernThai woman. The sabai was now worn over a louse , and frequently won with a silk jacket trimmed with lace.

Mudmee is regarded as the "Queen of Thai Silk" because of its intricate patterns. Though it can be woven from cotton yarn, the resulting mudmee does not look as gorgeous as mudmee silk.

Vogue, founded in the US in 1892, has been the longest-lasting and most successful of the hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing affluence after World War II and, most importantly, the advent of cheap colour printing in the 1960s led to a huge boost in its sales, and heavy coverage of fashion in mainstream women's magazines—followed by men's magazines from the 1990s. Haute couture designers followed the trend by starting the ready-to-wear and perfume lines, heavily advertised in the magazines, that now dwarf their original couture businesses. Television coverage began in the 1950s with small fashion features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, dedicated fashion shows such as Fashion-television started to appear. Despite television and increasing internet coverage, including fashion blogs, press coverage remains the most important form of publicity in the eyes of the fashion industry.

However, over the past several years, fashion websites have developed that merge traditional editorial writing with user-generated content. Online magazines like iFashion Network, and Runway Magazine, led by Nole Marin from America's Next Top Model, have begun to dominate the market with digital copies for computers, iPhones and iPads. Example platforms include Apple and Android for such applications.

A few days after the 2010 Fall Fashion Week in New York City came to a close, The New Islander's Fashion Editor, Genevieve Tax, criticized the fashion industry for running on a seasonal schedule of its own, largely at the expense of real-world consumers. "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and their spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas come September while issuing reviews on shorts in January," she writes. "Savvy shoppers, consequently, have been conditioned to be extremely, perhaps impractically, farsighted with their buying."

Ethnic Fashion is defined as the Fashion of Multicultural groups such as African-American, Hispanics, Asians, etc. Examples of Ethnic Designer are FUBU, BabyPhat, FatFarm, Sean John, Etc. It is estimated that Ethnic Fashion has contributed over 25 Billion dollars in revenues.

 

Women of Vietnam are always representing the Beauty of Vietnam. That Beauty is designated toward Vietnamese Women through the Ao-Dai silk dresses in which they are wearing.

Ao-Dai was wisely used in everyday life in the old days. Today it is being used whenever there is a special social gathering such as Buddha's Birthday, Wedding. Ao-Dai is the symbol of Vietnam Beauty.

The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Milan, New York City, Paris, and London.

Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences, and which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion.

Art Gallery

Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD)

Software programs are the repository of accurate and comprehensive records of buildings and are used by architects and architectural companies.

The first program was installed back in the 1960s, to help architects save time instead of drawing their blueprints. Computer-aided design also known as CAD was originally the type of program that architects used, but since CAD couldn’t offer all the tools that architects needed to complete a project, CAAD developed as a distinct class of software.

3D computer graphics are often referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences. A 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model is not technically a graphic until it is visually displayed. Due to 3D printing, 3D models are not confined to virtual space. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering, or used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations. There are some 3D computer graphics software for users to create 3D images.

Computer & animated film

commonly refers to feature films and media that have been computer-animated to appear three dimensional on a movie screen. While traditional 2D animated films are now done primarily with the help of computers, the technique to render realistic 3D computer graphics (CG), or 3D Computer-generated imagery (CGI), is unique to using computers to create movies.

 

 

 

Photography

Image capture

Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film or photographic plate. Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor, usually a charge coupled device (CCD) or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for later playback or processing.

Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; those designed for single images are still cameras. However these categories overlap as still cameras are often used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern cameras can quickly switch between still and motion recording modes. A video camera is a category of movie camera that captures images electronically (either using analog or digital technology).

Lens

The lens of a camera captures the light from the subject and brings it to a focus on the film or detector. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken. The technological revolution in camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes. Pioneers included Zeiss and Leitz.

Camera lenses are made in a wide range of focal lengths. They range from extreme wide angle, wide angle, standard, medium telephoto and telephoto. Each lens is best suited a certain type of photography. The extreme wide angle may be preferred for architecture because it has the capacity to capture a wide view of a building. The normal lens, because it often has a wide aperture, is often used for street and documentary photography. The telephoto lens is useful for sports, and wildlife but it is more susceptible to camera shake.

Focus

Due to the optical properties of photographic lenses, only objects within a limited range of distances from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera's focus. There are various ways of focusing a camera accurately. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens, usually around 3 metres (10 ft) to infinity, is in reasonable focus. Fixed focus cameras are usually inexpensive types, such as single-use cameras. The camera can also have a limited focusing range or scale-focus that is indicated on the camera body. The user will guess or calculate the distance to the subject and adjust the focus accordingly. On some cameras this is indicated by symbols (head-and-shoulders; two people standing upright; one tree; mountains).

Rangefinder cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured by means of a coupled parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Single-lens reflex cameras allow the photographer to determine the focus and composition visually using the objective lens and a moving mirror to project the image onto a ground glass or plastic micro-prism screen. Twin-lens reflex cameras use an objective lens and a focusing lens unit (usually identical to the objective lens.) in a parallel body for composition and focusing. View cameras use a ground glass screen which is removed and replaced by either a photographic plate or a reusable holder containing sheet film before exposure. Modern cameras often offer autofocus systems to focus the camera automatically by a variety of methods.

Some experimental cameras, for example the planar Fourier capture array (PFCA), do not require focusing to allow them to take pictures. In conventional digital photography, lenses or mirrors map all of the light originating from a single point of an in-focus object to a single point at the sensor plane. Each pixel thus relates an independent piece of information about the far-away scene. In contrast, a PFCA does not have a lens or mirror, but each pixel has an idiosyncratic pair of diffraction gratings above it, allowing each pixel to likewise relate an independent piece of information (specifically, one component of the 2D Fourier transform) about the far-away scene. Together, complete scene information is captured and images can be reconstructed by computation.

Some cameras have post focusing. Post focusing means take the pictures first and then focusing later at the personal computer. The camera uses many tiny lenses on the sensor to capture light from every angle of a scene and is called plenoptics technology. The current Plenoptic camera can serve as has 40,000 lenses working together to grab the optimal picture.

Industrial plasticine is based on wax and typically contains sulfur, which gives a characteristic smell to most artificial clays. Often, the styled object will be used to create molds. However, largely because sulfur can interfere with some mold-making processes, especially if clay surfaces are unsealed surfaces and platinum-cure RTV (room temperature vulcanizing) silicone rubber is used, sulfur-free variants are now available; these are usually much lighter than sulfur-containing clays.

Industrial plasticine is a modeling material which is mainly used by automotive design studios. It was developed as an industrial version of plasticine or hobby clay.

Home & Living

Building is defined in many aspects as:

  • As a Civil Engineering structures such as a house, worship centre, Factories etc. that has a foundation,wall,roof etc. that protect human being and their properties from direct harsh effect of weather like rain,wind,sun etc.
  • The act of constructing, erecting, or establishing.
  • The art of constructing edifices, or the practice of civil architecture.
  • That which is built; a fabric or edifice constructed, as a house, a church, castle, arena/ stadium, etc.
  • The act of constructing or building something; "during the construction we had to take a detour"; "his hobby was the building of boats"
  • The commercial activity involved in constructing buildings; "their main business is home construction"; "workers in the building trades"
  • A structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place;"there was a three-storey building on the corner"; "it was an imposing edifice"
  • The occupants of a building; "the entire building complained about the noise"

To differentiate buildings in the usage of this article from other buildings and other structures that are not intended for continuous human occupancy, the latter are called non-building structures or simply structures.

Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified, spires and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included.

The definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise.

Foods

Street vendors and concessions

Traditional street food is available around the world, usually from small operators and independent vendors operating from a cart, table, portable grill or motor vehicle. Common examples include Vietnamese noodle vendors, Middle Eastern falafel stands, New York City hot dog carts, and taco trucks. Turo-Turo vendors (Tagalog for point point) are a feature of Philippine life. Commonly, street vendors provide a colorful and varying range of options designed to quickly captivate passers-by and attract as much attention as possible.Depending on the locale, multiple street vendors may specialize in specific types of food characteristic of a given cultural or ethnic tradition. In some cultures, it is typical for street vendors to call out prices, sing or chant sales-pitches, play music, or engage in other forms of "street theatrics" in order to engage prospective customers. In some cases, this can garner more attention than the food itself; some vendors represent another form of tourist attraction.

 

 

Save Earth with Infinity Energy

With the renewable energy from oil or petrolium for the Future.Have you ever listened in Hi-Bryd Energy ( Power of H2 from H2O ) and Electric Energy ( Power of Electrical ).The power change are summaries are comming to use in the near future .We have the new idea about the new power change to introduce for the future. Nissan iV the new concept with

" Magnetic suspension Energy " The power between Electron + with Electron + or Electron - with Electron - and + with - .We can use power push between Electron for vehicles or wheel.

Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) is the magnetic levitation of an object achieved by constantly altering the strength of a magnetic field produced by electromagnets using a feedback loop. In most cases the levitation effect is mostly due to the permanent magnets; since they don't have any power dissipation, with electromagnets only used to stabilize the effect.

A charged body cannot rest in stable equilibrium when placed in a pure electrostatic field or magnetostatic field. In these kinds of fields an unstable equilibrium condition exists. Although static fields cannot give stability, EMS works by continually altering the current sent to electromagnets to change the strength of the magnetic field and allows a stable levitation to occur. In EMS a feedback loop which continuously adjusts one or more electromagnets to correct the object's motion is used to cancel the instability.

Many systems use magnetic attraction pulling upwards against gravity for these kinds of systems as this gives some inherent lateral stability, but some use a combination of magnetic attraction and magnetic repulsion to push upwards.

Magnetic levitation technology is important because it reduces energy consumption, largely obviating friction. It also avoids wear and has very low maintenance requirements. The application of magnetic levitation is most commonly known for its role in Maglev trains.

An active magnetic bearing (AMB) works on the principle of electromagnetic suspension and consists of an electromagnet assembly, a set of power amplifiers which supply current to the electromagnets, a controller, and gap sensors with associated electronics to provide the feedback required to control the position of the rotor within the gap. These elements are shown in the diagram. The power amplifiers supply equal bias current to two pairs of electromagnets on opposite sides of a rotor. This constant tug-of-war is mediated by the controller which offsets the bias current by equal but opposite perturbations of current as the rotor deviates by a small amount from its center position.

The gap sensors are usually inductive in nature and sense in a differential mode. The power amplifiers in a modern commercial application are solid state devices which operate in a pulse width modulation (PWM) configuration. The controller is usually a microprocessor or DSP.

   

A part of our coverage is live reports from the Thailand international Motor show. The video is an example fashions-models and motor show on motor show 2017.The 38th Bangkok International Motor show Beauty in the Drive 28 March-9 Apirl 2017.

Car Design News is the leading online resource for the professional automotive designer community, and for teachers and students at design colleges worldwide.

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We are all passionate about cars. Ferrari and Autodesk present the Ferrari World Design Contest: 7 prestigious schools compete to design a Ferrari that is hyper-light, hyper-fast, hyper-technological and hyper-ecological. Get to know our first team: College for Creative Studies from Detroit, USA. Autodesk Education
 
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